PRIMARY ( DISPOSABLE ) CELLS
Telit Power doo is a wholesaler of primary ( disposable or non-rechargeable ) cells, with different chemistry, capacity and size.
These cells can be used separately or in a battery packs, and are intended for different devices (wireless phones, cameras and camcorders, pressure gauges, clocks, car alarms, toys ……).
These batteries can be found as primary (disposable), but we also have a rechargeable batteries that are mostly used by cordless phones, cameras, but can also be used by all other devices.
|Battery||Anode (+)||Cathode (-)||Nominal voltage (V)|
|Zinc Carbon||Zinc||Manganese dioxide||1.5|
|Lithium (CR)||Lithium||Manganese dioxide||3|
|Lithium thionyl chloride||Lithium||Sulfur oxigen chlorine||3.6|
Cathode: Manganese dioxide (MnO2)
Electrolyte: Ammonium chloride or zinc chloride dissolved in water
Applications: Flashlights, toys, moderate drain use
A Leclanché cell or Dry cell, so called because of its non-fluid electrolyte (to prevent spillage). This is achieved by adding an inert metal oxide so that the electrolyte forms a gel or paste.
These cells are the cheapest ones in wide use, but they also have the lowest energy density and perform poorly under high-current applications. Still, the zinc carbon design is reliable and more than adequate for many everyday applications.
Anode: Zinc powder
Cathode: Manganese dioxide (MnO2) powder
Electrolyte: Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Applications : Radios, toys, photo-flash applications, watches, high-drain applications
This cell design gets its name from its use of alkaline aqueous solutions as electrolytes. Alkaline battery chemistry was first introduced in the early ’60s. The alkaline cell has grown in popularity, becoming the zinc-carbon cell’s greatest competitor. Alkaline cells have many acknowledged advantages over zinc-carbon, including a higher energy density, longer shelf life, superior leakage resistance, better performance in both continuous and intermittent duty cycles, and lower internal resistance, which allows it to operate at high discharge rates over a wider temperature range. The electrolyte, KOH, allows high ionic conductivity. Zinc oxide is often added to slow down corrosion of the zinc anode. A cellulose derivative is thrown in as well as a gelling agent. These materials make the alkaline cell more expensive than the zinc-carbon, but its improved performance makes it more cost effective, especially in high drain situations where the alkaline cell’s energy density is much higher.
There are other cell designs that fit into the alkaline cell category, including the mercury oxide, silver oxide, and zinc air cells. Mercury and silver give even higher energy densities, but cost a lot more and are being phased out through government regulations because of their high toxicity as heavy metals.
BR lithium batteries come in a variety of form factors but are most commonly available as coin-cell batteries. Manufacturers typically fabricate them using a carbon monofluoride gel and a lithium alloy. This composition has good high-temperature characteristics, and the batteries usually have low self-discharge characteristics. As such, they find use in applications that require long service intervals and have relatively low power requirements. Such applications include water and gas meters, heat-cost allocators, electronic toll-collection systems, and tire-pressure-monitoring systems. These batteries are also readily available to OEMs. The cell’s nominal voltage is 3V, and its discharge voltage is 2.2V.
Like BR lithium batteries, the CR type uses a lithium alloy for the anode but replaces the cathode with a manganese-dioxide material. This material reduces the internal impedance of the battery. As such, a CR cell generally better suits supplying higher pulse currents than its BR counterpart at the expense of a slightly higher self-discharge rate and lower performance at high temperatures. Applications include remote keyless entry, RFID (radio-frequency identification), and watches. Both OEMs and consumers can easily obtain these batteries. Their nominal voltage is 3V, and discharge voltage is 2.2V.
Lithium-thionyl-chloride batteries are relatively new and have extremely low self-discharge rates, enabling battery life of approximately 20 years. They also benefit from a flat discharge profile over time so that the terminal voltage stays relatively constant over the entire service life. Manufacturers of these batteries typically fabricate them using a solution of lithium tetrachloroaluminate in thionyl chloride as the liquid cathode, with a zinc alloy as the anode. This technology is more costly than other lithium chemistries and finds use in applications demanding extremely long battery life, such as water and gas meters and other industrial- and military-electronic applications. These batteries are uncommon in consumer applications and are available to OEMs through a select set of suppliers. The cells have nominal voltages of 3.6V and discharge voltages of 2.2V.
SECONDARY ( RECHARGEABLE ) CELLS
We also offer you a large selection of secondary (rechargeable) cells with various chemistry, capacity and size. These cells can be used separately or in a battery packs, and are intended for different devices (wireless phones, cameras, camcorders, various measuring instruments, GPRS instruments, surveying and medical devices, battery-powered hand tools, communication equipment, flashlights …)
We provide quality cells, from the world well known manufacturers such as Panasonic, Sanyo, Focus Power, FB LTT Electronics, EEMB
Nowdays Nickel Metal Hydride Cell offer about 40% higher capacity in comparation with Nickel Cadmium Cells but its decisive advantage is the absence of toxic metals.
Anode: Rare-earth or nickel alloys with many metals
Cathode: Nickel oxyhydroxide
Electrolyte: Potassium hydroxide
Applications: Cellular phones, camcorders, emergency backup lighting, power tools, laptops, portable, electric vehicles….
This sealed cell is a hybrid of the NiCd and NiH2 cells. Previously, this battery was not available for commercial use because, although hydrogen has wonderful anodic qualities, it requires cell pressurization. Fortunately, in the late 1960s scientists discovered that some metal alloys (hydrides such as LiNi5 or ZrNi2) could store hydrogen atoms, which then could participate in reversible chemical reactions. In modern NiMH batteries, the anode consists of many metals alloys, including V, Ti, Zr, Ni, Cr, Co, and Fe.
Except for the anode, the NiMH cell very closely resembles the NiCd cell in construction. Even the voltage is virtually identical, at 1.2 volts, making the cells interchangeable in many applications
The NiMH cell does cost more and has half the service life of the NiCd cell, but it also has 30% more capacity, increased power density (theoretically 50% more, practically 25% more). The memory effect, which was at one time thought to be absent from NiMH cells, is present if the cells are treated just right. To avoid the memory effect fully discharge once every 30 or so cycles. There is no clear winner between the two. The better battery depends on what characteristics are more crucial for a specific application.
Standard Nickel Cadmium cells are often present in the development of battery packs for its indispensable characteristics.
Cathode: Nickel oxyhydroxide Ni(OH)2
Electrolyte: Aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Applications: Calculators, digital cameras, pagers, lap tops, tape recorders, flashlights, medical devices (e.g., defibrillators), electric vehicles, space applications, GPRS ….
The cathode is nickel-plated, woven mesh, and the anode is a cadmium-plated net. Since the cadmium is just a coating, this cell’s negative environmental impact is often exaggerated. (Incidentally, cadmium is also used in TV tubes, some semiconductors, and as an orange-yellow dye for plastics.) The electrolyte, KOH, acts only as an ion conductor and does not contribute significantly to the cell’s reaction. That’s why not much electrolyte is needed, so this keeps the weight down.
Advantages: Good performance in high-discharge and low-temperature applications. They also have long shelf and use life.
Disadvantages:They cost more than the lead-acid battery and have lower power densities. Possibly its most well-known limitation is a memory effect, where the cell retains the characteristics of the previous cycle.
This term refers to a temporary loss of cell capacity, which occurs when a cell is recharged without being fully discharged. This can cause cadmium hydroxide to passivate the electrode, or the battery to wear out. In the former case, a few cycles of discharging and charging the cell will help correct the problem, but may shorten the lifetime of the battery. The true memory effect comes from experience with a certain style of NiCad in space use, which were cycled within a few percent of discharge each time.
An important thing to know about “conditioning ” a NiCd battery is that the deep discharge spoken of is not a discharge to zero volts, but to about 1 volt per cell.
Anode: Carbon compound, graphite
Cathode: Lithium oxide
Electolytet: Metal Lithium alloy
Applications: Laptops, cellular phones, electric vehicles
Lithium batteries that use lithium metal have safety disadvantages when used as secondary (rechargeable) energy sources. For this reason a series of cell chemistries have been developed using lithium compounds instead of lithium metal. These are called generically Lithium ion Batteries.
Cathodes consist of a a layered crystal (graphite) into which the lithium is intercalated. Experimental cells have also used lithiated metal oxide such as LiCoO2, NiNi0.3Co0.7O2, LiNiO2, LiV2O5, LiV6O13, LiMn4O9, LiMn2O4, LiNiO0.2CoO2.
Electrolytes are usually LiPF6, although this has a problem with aluminum corrosion, and so alternatives are being sought. One such is LiBF4. The electrolyte in current production batteries is liquid, and uses an organic solvent.
Membranes are necessary to separate the electrons from the ions. Currently the batteries in wide use have microporous polyethylene membranes.
Applications: Radio equipment, laptop, PDA, cellular and mobile phones, electric vehicles…..
Lithium-ion polymer batteries, polymer lithium ion or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (abbreviated Li-poly, Li-Pol, LiPo, LIP, PLI or LiP) are rechargeable (secondary cell) batteries. LiPo batteries are usually composed of several identical secondary cells in parallel to increase the discharge current capability, and are often available in series “packs” to increase the total available voltage.
This type has technologically evolved from lithium-ion batteries.
The primary difference is that the lithium-salt electrolyte is not held in an organic solvent but in a solid polymer composite such as polyethylene oxide or polyacrylonitrile.
The advantages of Li-ion polymer over the lithium-ion design include potentially lower cost of manufacture, adaptability to a wide variety of packaging shapes, reliability, and ruggedness, with the disadvantage of holding less charge.
Cells sold today as polymer batteries are pouch cells. Unlike lithium-ion cylindrical cells, which have a rigid metal case, pouch cells have a flexible, foil-type (polymer laminate) case. In cylindrical cells, the rigid case presses the electrodes and the separator onto each other; whereas in polymer cells this external pressure is not required (nor often used) because the electrode sheets and the separator sheets are laminated onto each other. Since individual pouch cells have no strong metal casing, by themselves they are over 20% lighter than equivalent cylindrical cells.
In recent years, manufacturers have declared upwards of 500 charge-discharge cycles before the capacity drops to 80% (see Sanyo).
BATTERY ON SALE
INDUSTRIAL BATTERIES WHOLESALE